Preparation for the procedures hirudotherapy consists, first, in the preparation of benign leeches and, secondly, in the treatment of the patient's skin immediately before the session. It is necessary to know that it is only a doctor who is qualified to put leeches by a qualified girudotherapist or a specialist in the disease who suffers the patient.
For mild diseases, the setting of leeches is usually performed by a nurse. Independent formulation is permissible only in the simplest cases and under one condition: medical workers should teach the patient all the rules for carrying out this procedure. With some ailments, the individual setting of leeches by the patient is strictly forbidden. Treatment of the skin before the session hirudotherapy is performed by the nurse or the patient himself, who in advance explains in detail what needs to be done.
On the day of the session, the patient should not take a bath, use soap, cosmetics and other odorous means; The use of alcohol is excluded. In the course of several (preferably 3-4) hours before the session, the patient is obliged to refrain from smoking. It is necessary to refuse work on the house, in the garden or in the garage:
After them a persistent smell of various technical substances to which the leeches are sensitive remains on the human skin.
This also applies to the doctor (health worker), who conducts leeches. His hands should not smell of alcohol, drugs, formalin, ichthyol ointment, tobacco, etc. Feeling a sharp smell, leeches refuse to suck in to the patient's skin. Regardless of where the irritating smell comes from, the leeches descend to the bottom of the can and form a live heap there, trying to hide under each other.
Before the session, the doctor stores the necessary devices for the procedure. Girudoterapevt takes pure alcohol, a glass of hot water (temperature up to +55 C), an oilcloth and a sterile tray with medical equipment - sterile tweezers and sterile cotton swabs or gauze balls number 7. Sometimes, if leeches are attached to the nape and mastoid processes behind the ears , You need to stock up on a towel.
Skin treatment is carried out in order to remove pathogenic bacteria, remove residual odors that are not perceived by humans, but are well captured by the leech, and cause blood flow to the skin. First, if necessary, skin is wiped out and then thoroughly wiped with a swab dipped in alcohol. After that, alcohol is washed off with tampons dipped in hot water. This will help get rid of the smell of alcohol and will increase the flow of blood to the skin. The skin area is always treated "with a margin" (over a larger area than necessary). It is necessary to thoroughly wipe the areas adjacent to the leech area.
The patient is in a sitting position only if the leeches are placed on the mastoid processes behind the ears. In all other cases, he is allowed to lie down or lie down. Regardless of the initial position of the body after putting the leeches, the patient must lie down. The session of hirudotherapy lasts from 30 to 90 minutes. It is difficult for a patient to maintain such a fixed position for a long time, especially in certain diseases.
Leeches are taken from the jar for conservation storage with bare hands. The health worker grasps the leech with his fingers at the head department and in this form transfers to the skin to the suction site or transplants it into a special dish, with which the setting is performed.
If you want to put a leech in a test tube, you have to use tweezers. In all other cases, its use is undesirable. Tweezers cause irritation in leeches and do not give the opportunity to properly consider them to assess the condition.
Healthy leeches may be unsuitable for treatment. Usually this refers to well-fed individuals. They refuse to stick to the skin of a person, because they do not feel hungry. Applying such instances is useless.
Benign leeches demonstrate adequate eating behavior. Their motor activity allows them to search for the victim at any time, as soon as they have received information about the presence of a person nearby.
In most cases, to detect a disease in a leech, it is enough to examine its skin. The most common ailments of herdines are metal disease, mucus and yellow matter. With metal disease, the body of the leech takes an unnatural form (narrowing in some areas and expanding into others).
The skin of the leech is covered with pineal nodules, which are hardening day by day. The development of this process is sometimes accompanied by ulcers on the leech skin.
With progressing nodulation, there is an increasing weakness and lethargy of the leech, which soon dies.
Illusion is otherwise called a mucous disease. The disease consists in the active accumulation on the outer covers of leeches of an adhesive gel mass - mucus. The skin of the leech is not cleansed, and death comes very quickly. The owner of leeches should remember that mucus is extremely contagious. If it is not timely to isolate a sick leech and not put the remaining worms in a new vessel, they too may die. Healthy leeches, neighbors with a sick individual, are necessarily washed thoroughly.
Zheltjanitsu also called jaundice, because with this disease the outer covers of the worm acquire a yellowish color. The body of the leech swells, becoming soft and flabby. Death comes very quickly. Unfortunately, to reduce to zero mortality among leeches is impossible. However, with proper care, attention and care, losses will be minimal.
If the leeches look completely healthy, you can determine their actual fitness by the following test. In a vessel with leeches, you must lower your hand. Benign leeches will very quickly cling to it and begin to bite greedily. This test has another positive side: it allows you to notice the regurgitation of a leech. Starting to suck blood, an unhealthy leech occasionally spits up. It can not be used for treatment.
Medicine does not have much in fact material about the complications, which entails the use of leeches patients: experiments in this direction for obvious reasons were not carried out. Girudoterapevty decided not to risk and do not specify how dangerous to the patient's body unhealthy leeches.
Needless to say, when conducting a test for the suitability of worms, you should not allow leeches attached to your arm to take a lot of blood. After making sure that leeches behave normally, they are immediately removed from their hands.
Find out if the leech is healthy, and allows a simpler test. Several leeches are placed in a jar with a small amount of water. If they are healthy, they will soon begin to climb the walls of the can. Usually a medical leech takes 30 minutes to navigate under the new conditions, leave the water and gain a foothold on the glass.
Another simple test for checking the motor reflexes of the leech is as follows. Leech take in hands and slightly squeeze fingers. A normal leech due to a strong contraction of the muscle bag compresses the lump. Her body becomes elastic and dense, greatly diminishing in size.
It has been mentioned more than once that leeches to clean water, a storage vessel, etc. are very demanding. Here we will give concrete recommendations on the maintenance of cleanliness with the conservation of leeches.
These measures are included in the number necessary for both caring for leeches, and when they are staged. First of all, it must be noted that for the gerdins, air purity is of no small importance, since they lead an amphibian life. Often leaving the aquatic environment, they do not tolerate stale air with strong and astringent odors. The greatest irritation is caused by leeches smells of tobacco and cologne, as well as typical "medical" compounds - carbolic, alcohol, formalin, ether. Reactively leeches react to creosote and some other odoriferous substances. Therefore, the room in which the blood vessels with leeches are located should be ventilated every day or, if necessary, several times a day.
To keep leeches, new, never used and never used vessels are taken. Sometimes, of course, exceptions are made. In this case, the vessel, which was in use, is thoroughly washed (without soap). First of all, the above concerns the containers in which the medicines were kept. After each change of water, the vessel is washed from the inside. It is permissible to flush the container with your hands (the hands of the washer should be clean), but you can use a variety of adaptations.
Cleaning of the container begins in the presence of leeches. Trying not to hurt and without pouring water, the washer carefully wipes the walls of the vessel. Alarmed leeches are carried away by the currents in the water and fall off the walls. The washer uses this to wipe the worm simultaneously.
At this point, it is important to check whether the molting passes well at leeches. Sometimes the detached cuticle (shell) is held on their body, folding or hanging in the form of small scraps. When the whole leatherette is retained on the skin of the leeches, it often collects with time into a kind of belt that pulls the leech, squeezing its internal organs. This prevents normal blood circulation and causes a leech anxiety. If the washer detects a leech, which has problems with dropping the cuticle, he gently helps her fingers to get rid of the dangerous film.
The inner surface of the vessel is covered with a layer of mucous secretions of leeches; In places this layer is very thick. It is necessary to wash the mucus from the walls until the glass at hand begins to creak. Only under this condition can we assume that the washing was done correctly. It is necessary to make sure that the slime accumulations are eliminated on the entire inner surface of the vessel.
When the work is completed, the water with floating leeches in it can be gently poured into a sink, first putting a sieve on it. To ensure that the slime pieces do not get stuck when draining, the sieve should not be too shallow. The remaining leech in the sieve is sprinkled with previously stored water and hand-picked, further cleansing their peel.
The rinsed vessel is rinsed and then filled with clean water until a certain level is reached. After that, leeches from a sieve are transplanted into the container by hand. After completing the transplantation of worms, the washer should close the vessel with matter and tie it tightly.