The high efficiency girudoterapii provide biologically active substances that have been found in the composition of the salivary glands of the medicinal leech. At present there are results obtained in the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences I.P.Baskovoy, I.I.Artamonovoy, L.L.Zavalovoy. They indicate the presence of more than 100 biologically active components that have a powerful therapeutic-effect on the human body.
The active compounds leech secretion:
Hirudin - a polypeptide consisting of 65 amino acids, is the most potent and specific inhibitor of thrombin. Slows down the process of blood coagulation, as a potent anticoagulant.
In 1884, George. Haykraft drew everyone's attention to skin lesions after exposure leeches bleed for a long time and suggested that salivary glands of leeches contain unknown substances which have anticoagulation action. In 1903 F.Frants first isolated a substance from the extract of leech and called it hirudin. F.Makverdt (1955-70gg.) Revealed the biochemical mechanism of action of hirudin by showing that it is an inhibitor of thrombin.
It took its rightful place as an effective means for the prevention and treatment of serious diseases such as thrombosis, varicose veins, predinfarktnye and postinfarction state, strokes, in patients with acute coronary syndrome and angina
Hirudin is not converted in the body into new substances, and therefore excreted by the kidneys in an unmodified form.
Hyaluronidase - the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of hydrolytic cleavage and depolymerization of hyaluronic acid and acid mucopolysaccharides, which are important components of the ground substance of connective tissue, performing the role of cementing agent, bonding individual cells and tissue elements. Hyaluronidase is a "spreading factor". With it easier penetration into the organism of the patient of different medicinal substances, increases the permeability of tissues, walls of blood vessels. Hyaluronidase - the vector by which other active substances that are part of a secret of salivary glands of leeches, enter the body of the sick person with prokusyvanii skin. Absorbable action hyaluronidase is of particular importance in the treatment of diseases associated with scarring and adhesive processes. This enzyme is contained in venoms of snakes, spiders, extracts of human testis, some bacteria, is indispensable in the process of fertilization - one of the factors, ensuring the successful infertility treatment method hirudotherapy
Histamine substances - activate organ microcirculation. Leads to increased caliber of blood vessels and, consequently, increase the regional blood flow.
Bdeliny - trypsin inhibitors of plasmin and acrosin exert powerful anti-inflammatory effect.
Eglin - inhibitors of alpha - chymotrypsin and cathepsin G (neutral protease granulocytes people) have powerful anti-inflammatory effect.
Destabilase - provides the thrombolytic effect. Breaks E-lysine due to stabilized fibrin (which is important for resorption of blood clots) and E-lysine links between different proteins (formation of links pointed at a number of pathological conditions, such as cataract lens). Destabilazny complex provides thrombolytic activity by hydrolysis of the bonds formed by stabilizing the fibrin in the presence of factor XIII blood clotting.
Aeromonas hydrophila - a bacterium symbiote - is unique in its protease activity, aggressive towards to other microbes, powerful immunnostimulyator.
Collagenase - an enzyme capable of destroying the long strands of the protein collagen, which usually fills the large wound in the process of healing. It is composed of collagen keloid scars that remain on the skin as a result of severe burns or deep cuts. Collagenase breaks down collagen and this promotes the resorption of keloid scars. Widely used in modern cosmetology.
Orgelaza - promotes the formation of new blood vessels, capillaries, increasing their permeability, It reduces swelling. As a result, swelling and blood clots in the vessel walls dissolve and restored normal movement of fluids in the affected organ, and its drainage continues after removing the leeches. This property of enzymes currently used in microsurgery with skin grafts or flaps transplantation severed in accidents fingers, nose and other organs.
Saratin - an inhibitor of platelet aggregation at the damaged surface of the vessel wall. Is used for the treatment of various thromboembolic disorders, including venous thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, cerebrovascular thrombosis and myocardial infarction.
Kininase - hydrolase cleaves bradykinin - reduces pain.
Prothrombinase (an inhibitor of factor Xa) - antithrombotic action
Dekorzin - platelet aggregation inhibitor ( blocking the glycoprotein IIb / IIIa platelet).
Kalin - an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and von Willebrand factor.
Apyrase - the enzyme that determines the anti sclerotic effect. Apyrase enzyme enhances lipoprotein lipase activity, resulting in decreased blood levels of total cholesterol and beta-low density lipoprotein, high levels of which contributes to the development of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels. Apyrase increases the tolerance of the body to glucose, which is important in prevention of diabetes mellitus.
Patelet activating factor (PAF, English platelet-activating factor, PAF.) - Platelet-activating factor: a powerful mediator of inflammation - inhibits platelet activation, has anti-inflammatory effect. It is widely used for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis.
Girustazin - an inhibitor of tissue kallekreina, trypsin, chymotrypsin and cathepsin G neutrophil has anti-inflammatory.
Tryptase inhibitor (LDTI - Leech Derived Tryptase Inhibitor) - tetrameric protein, trypsin-like serine protease is an essential component of secretory cytoplasmic granules of mast cells. Tryptase plays an important pathogenetic role in allergic and inflammatory conditions associated with dysfunction of mast cells, such as asthma, some lung diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other inactivating tryptase LDTI helps to reduce allergic and inflammatory responses.
Carboxypeptidase inhibitor (LCI - Leech Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor) kinin-blocking hydrolysis in place prokusyvaniya skin leech - increases local blood flow.
Biologically active substances (prostoglandinovoy nature) - hypotensive effect Analogues endorphins - enzymes that have a positive impact on a person's emotional state.